Where Does Hematopoiesis Create New Red Blood Cells?

The process of hematopoiesis refers to the production of blood cells in the body, which includes red blood cells. It is a vital process that occurs continuously throughout life to replace old and damaged blood cells. But where exactly in the body does hematopoiesis create new red blood cells? Let’s explore this topic further below.

Bone Marrow and Hematopoiesis

Bone marrow is the primary site for hematopoiesis, where blood cells are continuously produced throughout life. Both red and white blood cells are created in the bone marrow, making it an essential organ for maintaining the body’s immune system and blood supply.

Bone marrow is a soft, spongy tissue found in the hollow centers of bones such as the skull, ribs, pelvis, and in the long bones of the arms and legs. The marrow contains hematopoietic stem cells or HSCs, which have the ability to differentiate into various types of blood cells.

The Types of Hematopoiesis

Embryonic Hematopoiesis

The earliest type of hematopoiesis is embryonic hematopoiesis, which occurs during fetal development. During this process, red blood cells are produced in the yolk sac, and later in the fetal liver and spleen. This stage of hematopoiesis is not present beyond the fetal stage.

Myeloid Hematopoiesis

The other type of hematopoiesis is myeloid hematopoiesis, which is responsible for the production of blood cells in adults. Within the bone marrow, HSCs differentiate into myeloid and lymphoid stem cells that later differentiate into specialized blood cells.

Myeloid hematopoiesis is responsible for the production of all blood cell types, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Myeloid stem cells differentiate into erythrocyte progenitor cells, which then give rise to red blood cells.

The Process of Creating Red Blood Cells

Hematopoiesis, specifically erythropoiesis, the process of creating new red blood cells, is a complex process involving several factors. Erythropoietin hormone (EPO) produced by the kidneys stimulates the bone marrow to produce new red blood cells to help the body maintain a stable oxygen-carrying capacity.

Erythrocyte progenitor cells receive the signal for erythropoiesis and begin to differentiate into red blood cells. The differentiated cells then enter the bloodstream, where they transport oxygen from the lungs to the body tissues, and carbon dioxide from the body tissues back to the lungs.

Factors Affecting Hematopoiesis

Diseases or Disorders

Hematopoiesis can be affected by various diseases or disorders, leading to anemia or low red blood cell count. Some of these diseases include:

  • Sickle cell anemia
  • Leukemia
  • Thalassemia
  • Aplastic anemia


Nutrition also plays a vital role in hematopoiesis. Nutrients such as iron, vitamin B12, and folate are crucial for the proper production of red blood cells. Inadequate levels of these nutrients can lead to anemia or low red blood cell count.

Toxic Substances

Toxic substances like alcohol, lead, and radiation can damage the bone marrow, leading to impaired hematopoiesis and lower red blood cell count.


In conclusion, hematopoiesis is the process that creates new blood cells, including red blood cells, and it occurs primarily in the bone marrow. The process of creating new red blood cells is an essential and complex process that involves various factors such as EPO, erythrocyte progenitor cells, and nutrients.


Here are some of the most common questions related to hematopoiesis and red blood cells:

  • Q: What is hematopoiesis?

    A: Hematopoiesis refers to the continuous process of creating new blood cells in the body.
  • Q: What is the role of bone marrow in hematopoiesis?

    A: Bone marrow is the primary site of hematopoiesis, where hematopoietic stem cells differentiate into various specialized blood cells.
  • Q: Can hematopoiesis create red blood cells?

    A: Yes, hematopoiesis creates new blood cells of all types, including red blood cells.
  • Q: What are the factors affecting hematopoiesis?

    A: Factors that affect hematopoiesis include diseases or disorders, nutrition, and toxic substances.


  • Stier, S., & Cheng, T. (2016). Hematopoietic Stem Cells and Their Niches. In StemBook (pp. 1-37).
  • Klimiankou, M., Klimenkova, O., & Zeidler, C. (2016). Hematopoiesis in humans and invertebrates: a comparative overview. Stem cells international, 2016.
  • Pietras, E. M., & Warr, M. R. (2015). Pseudo‚Äźemphysema: a bone marrow perspective on the adipose niche. Trends in molecular medicine, 21(5), 293-304.

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