What Causes Flashbacks: Demystifying the Triggers

Flashbacks are sudden and vivid memories of a traumatic event that can occur without any warning. They can be triggered by various stimuli, such as sights, sounds, smells, or even thoughts. Flashbacks are a common symptom of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which is a condition that can develop after a person experiences or witnesses a traumatic event. In this article, we shall explore the different triggers that can cause flashbacks and discuss ways to manage them.

The Science behind Flashbacks

Before we dive into the causes of flashbacks, it’s essential to understand what happens in the brain during trauma. When an individual faces a traumatic situation, the brain’s natural fight-or-flight response kicks in, releasing a surge of adrenaline and cortisol. This response ”helps” the person to handle the situation effectively. However, in some cases, when the threat persists or the trauma is severe, the brain may become overwhelmed, leading to an inability to process the situation adequately.

In such cases, the brain tends to retain sensory information, such as sights, sounds, and smells of the event, in the amygdala, a part of the brain that deals with emotions. Whenever triggered, the amygdala sends distress signals to the brain, causing an individual to relive the event through vivid memories known as flashbacks.

The Triggers of Flashbacks

Sensory Triggers

Sensory triggers are the most common causes of flashbacks. They involve anything that can stimulate any of the five senses, such as sound, smell, touch, taste, and sight. Sensory triggers can be anything from a particular texture, color, or shape of an object to a specific noise, smell, or taste.

For instance, a car backfiring or fireworks may remind a war veteran of gunfire, leading to a flashback. Similarly, the smell of a loved one’s perfume or cologne can trigger memories of the trauma or violence that happened in their presence. Trauma survivors may also feel triggered by textures, such as the rough weave of a particular fabric that reminds them of the texture of a perpetrator’s clothing.

Environmental Triggers

Environmental triggers are stimuli that remind the individual of a place or situation where they experienced trauma. These triggers can include anything from a particular time of day or year to a specific location, such as a hospital or school.

For example, an individual who was sexually assaulted in a park may experience severe anxiety or a flashback when they come across that park. Similarly, a soldier who was injured during an attack may feel triggered when in a similar environment or situation, such as a parade or political rally.

Internal Triggers

Internal triggers involve thoughts, memories, or emotions that a person experiences. They can be intrusive thoughts of the traumatic event, emotions such as sadness, anger, or anxiety, or physical sensations such as pain or trembling.

For instance, a woman who was sexually assaulted may have intrusive thoughts of the perpetrator, leading to a flashback. Similarly, a soldier who witnessed his friend’s death may become anxious and triggered at the thought of losing another friend in the future.

How to Manage Flashbacks

While flashbacks can be unsettling and stressful, there are ways to manage them effectively. Here are some helpful tips:

Grounding Techniques

Grounding techniques are coping strategies that help to keep an individual present and centered in reality. These techniques involve focusing on the present moment by using the five senses. They can include:

  • Deep breathing exercises
  • Touching and feeling different textures
  • Sipping cold water
  • Mentally counting or reciting a poem or prayer

Physical Exercise

Exercise is an excellent way to reduce stress and anxiety and boost mood. It releases endorphins, which are natural mood boosters that counteract the effects of stress hormones like cortisol. Physical activity can include anything from a brisk walk or jog to yoga or weightlifting.


Therapy is an important part of flashbacks’ management and PTSD treatment. Several specific types of therapy can be effective, including:

  • Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)
  • Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR)
  • Prolonged exposure therapy (PE)

These therapies target the underlying causes of flashbacks and help individuals learn how to manage their symptoms better.


Flashbacks can be debilitating and overwhelming, but they are a natural response to traumatic experiences. They occur due to the amygdala’s distress signals, which send information about the traumatic experience to the brain. Sensory, environmental, and internal triggers can cause flashbacks. However, effective coping techniques such as grounding, exercise, and therapy can help to manage these triggers and reduce the frequency and intensity of flashbacks.


  • What are flashbacks, and why do they happen?

    Flashbacks are vivid and distressing memories of traumatic experiences. They happen due to the amygdala’s distress signals, causing an individual to relive the traumatic event through vivid sensory experiences.

  • What causes flashbacks?

    Flashbacks can be caused by sensory, environmental, and internal triggers. Sensory triggers involve stimuli that remind the individual of the traumatic experience. Environmental triggers involve places or situations that the individual associates with the trauma, and internal triggers involve intrusive thoughts, emotions, or physical sensations related to the trauma.

  • Are flashbacks a symptom of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)?

    Yes, flashbacks are a common symptom of PTSD, a condition that can develop after an individual experiences or witnesses a traumatic event.

  • Can flashbacks be managed?

    Yes, flashbacks can be managed through effective coping techniques, such as grounding, exercise, and therapy. These techniques help to reduce the frequency and intensity of flashbacks and improve an individual’s quality of life.


  • National Institute of Mental Health. (2021). Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Retrieved from https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/post-traumatic-stress-disorder-ptsd/index.shtml
  • ResearchGate. (2021). Why do people experience flashbacks? Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/post/why_do_people_experience_flashbacks
  • Verywell Mind. (2021). Understanding Flashbacks and How to Cope with Them. Retrieved from https://www.verywellmind.com/what-is-a-flashback-2797525

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *