What Are PAC’s and How Do They Affect Your Heart?

One of the most crucial organs our body has is the heart. It is responsible for pumping blood and ensuring that all parts of our body receive a sufficient supply of oxygen and nutrients. But sometimes, we experience heart palpitations, which can be quite concerning. One possible reason for such palpitations is the occurrences of PAC’s. In this article, we will be discussing what PAC’s are, how they affect your heart, and what you can do to manage them.

What are PAC’s?

PAC stands for Premature Atrial Contractions. In simpler terms, it means that the heart’s upper chambers (the atria) beat too soon or too early. Normally, the sinoatrial (SA) triggers electrical impulses that travel through the atria and then through the ventricles, signaling the heart muscles to contract and pump blood. However, when PAC’s occur, an impulse from another part of the heart (not from the SA node) reaches the atria early, disrupting the normal rhythm.

What causes PAC’s?

PAC’s occur when the heart’s natural pacemaker sends out an electrical impulse earlier than expected. Some common causes of PAC’s include:

  • Caffeine intake: Caffeine is known to stimulate the heart, causing it to beat harder and faster. Too much caffeine intake can increase the chances of developing PAC’s.
  • Stress and anxiety: When we’re stressed or anxious, our body produces adrenaline. Adrenaline speeds up the heart rate, which can trigger the occurrence of PAC’s.
  • Dehydration: Dehydration can lead to an electrolyte imbalance, which can affect the heart’s normal rhythm.
  • Alcohol intake: Alcohol is a known depressant of the central nervous system, which can cause the atrial muscles to weaken and become more vulnerable to PAC’s.
  • Smoking: Smoking can lead to a buildup of carbon monoxide in the blood. This can cause the heart to work harder and increase the likelihood of developing PAC’s.

How do PAC’s affect your heart?

While PAC’s are often harmless, they can be unsettling and can indicate an underlying heart condition. When the heart’s rhythm is disrupted, it may not pump blood efficiently, and blood clots may form, which can lead to a stroke or heart attack. Also, if left unchecked, PAC’s can develop into atrial fibrillation, a condition that can be challenging to treat.

What are the Symptoms of PAC’s?

The symptoms of PAC’s may vary depending on a person’s age, health status, and underlying heart condition. Some common symptoms include:

  • Fluttering, throbbing, or pounding sensations in the chest
  • A feeling of skipped beats or extra heartbeats
  • Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing
  • Dizziness or lightheadedness
  • Fainting
  • Chest discomfort or pain

How Are PAC’s Diagnosed?

If you experience symptoms of PAC’s, your doctor may recommend specific diagnostic tests, such as:

  • Electrocardiogram (ECG): This test measures the electrical activity of the heart and identifies any abnormalities in the heart’s rhythm.
  • Holter Monitor: This is a wearable device that records the heart’s activity continuously over a day or more.
  • Echocardiogram: This test uses sound waves to create images of the heart’s structure and function.
  • Event Monitor: This is a wearable device that records the heart’s activity when symptoms occur.

How Are PAC’s Treated?

In most cases, PAC’s do not require treatment. However, if they are causing symptoms or are frequent, doctors may recommend medication or other treatments, such as:

  • Beta-blockers: These medications can help slow down a fast heart rate and reduce the occurrence of PAC’s.
  • Calcium channel blockers: These medications can help relax the heart’s muscles, reducing the occurrence of PAC’s.
  • Blood thinners: These medications may be prescribed if PAC’s increase the risk of blood clots and stroke.
  • Catheter ablation: This is a surgical procedure that uses radiofrequency energy or cryotherapy to destroy the heart tissue responsible for causing PAC’s.

What Can You Do to Manage PAC’s?

While PAC’s are not always preventable, you can reduce your risk of developing them by:

  • Avoiding or limiting the intake of caffeine, alcohol, and tobacco.
  • Managing stress and anxiety through relaxation techniques, such as yoga or meditation.
  • Staying hydrated by drinking enough water.
  • Exercising regularly.
  • Getting enough sleep.
  • Maintaining a healthy diet that includes fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean proteins.


PAC’s are a common occurrence that can be bothersome but are usually not dangerous. However, if you experience symptoms of PAC’s, it’s essential to seek medical advice to rule out any underlying heart conditions. Your doctor may recommend specific diagnostic tests and treatments based on the frequency and severity of the PAC’s. By adopting a healthy lifestyle, you can reduce your risk of developing PAC’s and other heart-related conditions.


  • Can PAC’s be dangerous?
  • PAC’s are often harmless, but in some cases, they can lead to more serious conditions, such as atrial fibrillation or stroke. It’s essential to seek medical advice if you experience any symptoms of PAC’s.

  • Can stress cause PAC’s?
  • Yes, stress can trigger PAC’s by increasing the heart rate and adrenaline levels in the body. Relaxation techniques, such as yoga and meditation, can help manage stress and reduce the likelihood of developing PAC’s.

  • Can dehydration cause PAC’s?
  • Yes, dehydration can lead to an electrolyte imbalance, which can affect the heart’s normal rhythm, leading to the occurrence of PAC’s.

  • Can caffeine cause PAC’s?
  • Yes, caffeine is a stimulant that can speed up the heart rate, triggering the occurrence of PAC’s. It’s essential to limit caffeine intake to prevent the occurrence of PAC’s.

  • Can PAC’s be cured?
  • While there is no known cure for PAC’s, they can be managed through medication or other treatments. Adopting a healthy lifestyle, such as avoiding triggers, managing stress, and staying hydrated, can also reduce the likelihood of developing PAC’s.


  • “Premature Atrial Contractions (PACs).” Mayo Clinic, Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 24 Mar. 2018, https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/premature-contractions/symptoms-causes/syc-20376795.
  • “Premature Atrial Contractions: Diagnosis and Management.” American Family Physician, American Academy of Family Physicians, 1 Aug. 2017, https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0801/p154.html.
  • “10 Things to Know About Pacemakers.” Harvard Health, Harvard Health Publishing, 22 Mar. 2017, https://www.health.harvard.edu/heart-health/10-things-to-know-about-pacemakers.

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