How is eye cancer causes


Eye cancer is a broad term used to describe any malignant tumor that grows in or near the eye. It is a rare form of cancer, accounting for only about five percent of all cancers in the United States. It can affect people at any age, but it is more common in older adults.

Eye cancer is classified into two main categories. The first category includes those tumors that originate from within the eye itself, such as those caused by melanoma, intraocular lymphomas and retinoblastoma. The second category includes those tumors that are not due to any direct cause but develop secondary to other cancers, such as metastatic tumors from other parts of the body that spread to the eye. In either case, however, it’s important to have an accurate diagnosis in order to provide effective treatment and improve outcomes.

In this article we will discuss further about eye cancer causes including signs and symptoms and its diagnosis methods as well as general awareness related to this condition.

Causes of Eye Cancer

Eye cancer, also referred to as intraocular melanoma, is a rare form of cancer that develops in the eye. The causes of eye cancer are not fully understood, but it is believed to develop due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors.

In this article, we’ll look at the known causes of eye cancer and the potential risks associated with the disease.

Sun Exposure

Sun Exposure is a major risk factor for many types of eye cancer. Prolonged exposure to ultraviolet radiation, such as that experienced by spending an extended period of time in the sun, can increase the chances of developing eye cancer. Ocular melanoma, in particular, can be caused by long-term sun exposure. People who are exposed to sunlight or tanning beds are at higher risk for developing ocular melanoma than those who do not spend a lot of time outdoors. It is important to wear quality sunglasses with UV protection when outdoors to reduce the risk of eye cancer from sun exposure.

In addition to causing specific types of eye cancer, sun exposure has also been linked to an overall greater vulnerability to developing all forms of eye cancers. The odds for developing eye cancer increases by approximately one percent for every five hours per week spent in direct sunlight without sunglasses or other forms of protective eyewear. This number increases further for people prone to more intense presentations of UV light, such as those found in the beaches or high altitudes. It is therefore important limit unprotected exposure to sunlight and regularly use quality UV protected eyewear when outdoors in order to prevent any form of ophthalmic malignancy.


Eye cancer is a rare form of cancer that starts in areas of the eye such as the retina, iris, and ciliary body. It can occur in both adults and children and is often categorized according to which part of the eye it starts in.

Various risk factors, such as age, gender, race, family history, and environmental exposure may increase an individual’s chances of developing eye cancer. While some types are caused by ultraviolet (UV) radiation or infectious agents, such as viruses or bacteria, many types are caused by genetic inheritance.

A person who has a family history of uveal melanoma or retinoblastoma may have an increased risk for developing one of these cancers. These genetic mutations can be inherited from either parent. Additionally, certain ethnicities have been found to have an increased risk for certain types of eye cancers due to genetic differences that vary from population to population.

It is important to note that genetics may also play a role in other factors associated with the development of eye cancer; lifestyle choices or environmental exposures may be linked to some genetic makeup more than others. Consulting with a healthcare provider about hereditary forms of eye cancer can help individuals learn more about their personal risks and ways they should take extra caution when protecting their eyes from UV radiation and other potential triggers.

Exposure to Radiation

Exposure to high levels of radiation, such as those from atomic bombs and nuclear accidents, can cause eye cancer. Long-term exposure to UV-B radiation from the sun has also been linked with an increased risk of eye cancer. This is especially common for people who spend a lot of time in direct sunlight or engage in outdoor activities without protection.

To reduce the risk, it is important to wear sunglasses and wide-brimmed hats when outside.

Besides radiation exposure, some forms of eye cancer may be linked with a family history of cancer, particularly if one or more close relatives has had it. Genetic testing can help to identify individuals at increased risk if they are found to have specific gene mutations. Other factors may also be associated with some types of eye cancer, such as prior inflammation due to infection or injury, but further research needs to be done in order to determine their exact links.

Viral Infections

Eye cancer can be caused by infections from certain viruses, such as the herpes simplex virus (HSV), the cytomegalovirus (CMV) and the human papilloma virus (HPV). These viruses can cause changes in the genetic makeup of cells, leading to an increased risk of eye cancer.

The primary risk factor for developing an HPV-related eye cancer is contact with infected body fluids or mucosal surfaces during sexual contact or other close personal contact. Contact with saliva and tears is usually what triggers HPV infection. Other factors include:

  • use of immunosuppressant drugs
  • having a weakened immune system due to HIV/AIDS or receiving an organ transplant
  • exposure to UV radiation from sunlight
  • a family history of eye cancer

Although not all cases of eye cancer are caused by viral infections, it is important to be aware that these viruses can place you at a higher risk for developing this type of cancer. Taking preventive steps such as practicing safer sex and wearing protective eyewear can help reduce your chances of getting infected by these viruses and ultimately developing eye cancer.

Symptoms of Eye Cancer

Eye cancer is a rare form of cancer that develops in the tissues of the eye. Early detection is important to help improve prognosis. It is important to be aware of the symptoms of eye cancer and to consult with your doctor if something seems unusual or concerning.

There are several warning signs that could indicate eye cancer. Let’s take a look at the different symptoms of eye cancer and what you should look out for:

Blurred Vision

Blurred vision is one of the most common symptoms of eye cancer, and it can occur in one or both eyes. Blurry vision can be the result of a variety of different causes and may be described in a few different ways.

Patients may experience blurred vision either when looking up close or at far away objects, as a result of reduced central vision or visual acuity, an increase in glare sensitivity, a loss in contrast sensitivity and color perception, or light rays not being focused on the retina correctly.

These changes to one’s vision can cause difficulty with reading and focusing on various tasks. It is important to visit an ophthalmologist immediately if you find that your vision has become noticeably blurry since this might be an indication of eye cancer.

Eye Pain

One of the primary symptoms of eye cancer is eye pain, or discomfort in the affected eye. This can range from a mild, continuous ache to sharp pains that come and go. The pain often occurs off and on, with the intensity responding to light exposure or pressure on the eye itself. Some people may experience unusual sensitivity to light exposure as well. In some cases, excessive tearing or gritty sensations may be experience as a result of irritation caused by a tumor pressing against nerves near the eye area.

Floaters and Flashes

Floaters in your vision are cobweb-like shapes or specks that appear when small pieces of the eye’s vitreous gel break off and cast shadows on the retina, the light-sensitive tissue at the back of your eye. Floaters may remain still, “dance” around in your vision or seem to dart away when you try to look directly at them. Floaters are painless and usually harmless and will typically become less noticeable over time.

Flashes also refer to sudden bright streaks of light that may appear across your field of vision like jagged lines or heat lightning. Flashes are caused when the vitreous gel inside your eye pulls away from the retina and tugs on it, sending a flash directly to your brain much like an electrical signal sent by a neuron. Some temporary flashes can be normal due to everyday activities such as bending over or getting up after sitting for a while; however, if these flashes persist for more than two days, it may indicate a problem with the retina such as retinal detachment which can lead to serious vision loss without treatment and could potentially be associated with eye cancer.

If you experience persistent floaters or flashes along with other symptoms such as:

  • blurry or distorted vision;
  • seeing spots;
  • partial or total loss of side, peripheral (or ‘side’) vision;
  • pain in one or both eyes

contact an ophthalmologist immediately for further evaluation and treatment recommendations.

Redness and Swelling

Redness, pain and swelling around the eye usually signal a problem. When it comes to eye cancer, the symptoms can vary with the type of tumor present. Symptoms may include:

  • Redness and swelling around the eye.
  • A lump inside or outside of the eyelid.
  • Changes in vision such as blurred vision or a change in color vision.
  • Pain in one or both eyes.
  • A white or yellow area on the iris (colored part) of your eye.
  • A drooping eyelid or pupil that is not round.

In some cases, an eye tumor may grow large enough to put pressure on other parts of the body, such as optic nerve damage and even cranial nerve damage resulting in double vision. If you are experiencing these symptoms, it is important to see an ophthalmologist right away for prompt diagnosis and treatment.


Eye cancer is a rare form of cancer that originates from the eye tissue or from other parts of the body that spread to the eye. To diagnose the condition, a thorough eye exam should be conducted, which typically includes non-invasive testing such as a slit lamp examination or MRI scan. Depending on the results of these tests, further tests such as an ultrasound, CT scan, or biopsy may be used to diagnose the condition.

Eye Exam

One of the main diagnostic tools used to screen for eye cancer is a comprehensive eye exam. The doctor will look at the front and back portions of your eyeball, determining the interior pressure and how light passes through your pupil. They may also use fluorescein angiography to track signs of cancer, while a flashlight exam can pinpoint fast-growing lesions.

Other tests that may be needed during the diagnosis process include:

  • Ultrasound: Ultrasound helps doctors diagnose tumors and abnormalities that can’t be seen with regular examination.
  • Blood Analysis: Blood tests are done to check for genetic markers associated with cancers, as well as potential other diseases or health issues that may be connected to eye cancer.
  • CT Scan/MRI: CT Scans and MRIs help confirm diagnoses and can show fine details about the size, shape, and texture of tumors inside the eye or in nearby structures like optic nerves or brain tissue.
  • Biopsy: When tissue samples from inside or around the eyes are taken for testing, it’s known as a biopsy. This method helps to identify what type of cell is present in a tumor or lesion, which makes treatment decisions simpler and more accurate.

Imaging Tests

Imaging tests are an important tool for helping to diagnose many conditions, as they allow medical professionals to get a detailed look at your body and any potential problems. Imaging tests comes in many forms, such as x-rays, PET scans and ultrasounds. Each type of imaging test is used to examine different organs in the body and helps health care providers detect problems.

X-rays make use of electromagnetic radiation to produce images on film, allowing healthcare providers to look at bones or other soft tissues of the body. X-ray technicians may also provide radiographs that give information about the lungs, by studying how much air they contain and how well they are working.

PET scans create images of organs internally on a computer screen or in printouts by detecting tiny amounts of radioactive materials injected into the patient’s bloodstream before the scan. These scans are often used when looking for diseases such as cancer and heart issues because they help pinpoint where it may be located in the body more precisely than other imaging methods can do so.

Ultrasounds create pictures using sound waves which can’t be seen with the naked eye. They are most commonly used for Abdominal imaging because it allows clinicians to see clearly within solid organs without putting any radiation into the patient’s bodies. Ultrasounds are also invaluable during pregnancy when doctors need detailed images of growing fetuses in order to check their overall health condition or monitor their development progress.


A biopsy is a medical procedure used to obtain tissue samples from organs and other body structures. It involves the use of a small needle or other medical instrument to take a sample of cells. This method is used to diagnose many diseases including cancer by examining the cells under a microscope for any abnormal characteristics.

Biopsy procedures can be either surgical or non-surgical. During a surgical biopsy, an incision is made in the patient’s skin and a sample of tissue is taken from the area in question. Non-surgical biopsies involve using needles which are inserted into the body and are guided by imaging techniques such as ultrasound or computed tomography (CT) scan, to help target and obtain a sample from the area that needs to be investigated further.

Once the sample has been obtained, it will then be tested in various ways. These tests may include:

  • Biochemical analysis
  • Microscopy
  • Special staining techniques which may help provide more detailed images of suspicious regions that cannot be seen with our eyes alone.

The results will be carefully studied and interpreted by doctors before any diagnosis can be made based on this information.


Finding the right course of treatment for eye cancer can be daunting. Depending on the type and stage of your cancer, along with other individual factors, the most effective treatment can vary. Treatment for eye cancer can consist of surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and other treatments.

Let’s look at the range of available treatments for eye cancer:


Surgery is a treatment option for some types of eye cancer. Depending on the type and size of the tumor, surgery may involve removal of part or all of the affected eye. Other methods include using lasers to treat retinoblastoma or radiation therapy to kill cancer cells.

In cases where only part of the eye is affected, surgery may still be done in order to preserve vision in as much of the eye as possible. If a tumor is very small and not causing significant symptoms, watchful waiting may be advised. The primary goal is to achieve complete removal of cancer with minimal disruption to surrounding tissue and remaining vision.

The type of surgery will depend on many factors, such as tumor size, location and type, patient age, overall health status and other considerations. Your doctor can help you understand your treatment options based on these factors.

Radiation Therapy

Radiation therapy is a type of treatment used to treat cancer that uses streams of particles or energy such as photons, protons, and electrons from an accelerator. It works by aiming high doses of the energy beams at cancerous cells. The energy beam stops the cells’ ability to divide and expand. This causes them to die and stops the spread of cancer.

In cases where the cancer has spread beyond one area, radiation therapy can also be used to reduce some pain from tumors that press against nerve endings or prevent movement due to mass effect. Radiation also helps palliative care teams manage pain using less potent drugs such as morphine and buprenorphine.

Eye cancer is often treated with external beam radiation, a form of radiotherapy known as fractionation where each session involves several doses given over a period of time rather than one large dose. Fractionation allows healthy cells in between the cancerous ones to repair any damage caused by the radiation while killing off any undamaged tumor cells each time they are hit with a dose of X-rays or other types of ionizing radiation that can penetrate tissue.


Chemotherapy is one of the primary treatments for eye cancer and is often used when tumors have spread to other parts of the body, or when a person is at high risk for cancer recurrence. Chemotherapy drugs kill rapidly dividing cells, which are most commonly found in cancerous tumors. The chemotherapy drugs are administered intravenously or sometimes as drops instilled into the eyes.

The goal of chemotherapy is to eliminate cancerous cells throughout the body and reduce the risk of spreading the tumor to other areas. It can also be used after surgery to reduce the chance that the cancer will return.

Side effects may include:

  • Fatigue
  • Anemia
  • Hair loss
  • Nausea
  • Loss of appetite
  • An increased risk for infection due to decreased immune system functioning.


The best way to prevent eye cancer is to take certain steps to reduce your risk of developing it. These include protecting your eyes from ultraviolet (UV) radiation, reducing your exposure to certain cancer-causing chemicals, and having regular eye exams. Taking these steps can help to lower your risk of developing eye cancer and provide early detection, if the cancer does develop.

Wear Sunglasses

Wearing sunglasses can reduce the risk of developing certain types of eye cancer. Even cloudy days or cooler temperatures can cause harm to the eyes if they are unprotected. Sun exposure increases with closer proximity to the equator, which might partly explain why skin and eye cancers are more frequent in sunny parts of the world.

Fortunately, many methods exist for minimizing sun exposure to the eyes during leisure or working activities under direct sunlight such as wearing wraparound sunglasses that offer UVA/B protection or wide brim hats. Look for wraparound styles with UVA/B protection to shield your eyes from most of the sun’s harmful UV rays and reduce your risk of developing eye cancer.

Avoid Tanning Beds

Tanning beds are one of the major contributing factors to eye cancer. Tanning beds use ultraviolet radiation to produce a tan in a short amount of time, however, this type of exposure can damage the eyes. Evidence suggests that people who have used tanning beds regularly are at greater risk for developing eye cancer. Additionally, some research has suggested that the damage from eye cancer linked with tanning beds does not necessarily go away after a person stops using them.

It is important to keep in mind that the radiation exposure from even one session with a tanning bed can significantly increase your chances of developing eye cancer, so limiting exposure as much as possible is key for reducing your risk. Additionally, wearing protective eyewear like sunglasses with UV protection is recommended when spending time outdoors as another way to reduce your risk.

Eat a Healthy Diet

A healthy diet is essential in helping to prevent eye cancer. Eating a balanced diet that contains a variety of nutrient-rich foods can lower your risk.

It is important to include plenty of fruits and vegetables, which are packed with essential vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants. Eating foods high in omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants like lutein may also be beneficial in decreasing the risk of eye cancer. Additionally, limiting processed and refined sugars can help keep blood sugar levels stable and reduce inflammation throughout the body, including the eyes. Lastly, staying hydrated by drinking plenty of water may play a role in reducing the risk of eye cancer.


In conclusion, eye cancer can be caused by a variety of different factors. The most common causes are prolonged exposure to sun, genetics, use of tobacco products, and radiation therapy. It is important to see a doctor if you experience any symptoms of eye cancer such as pain or changes in vision. Early diagnosis and treatment can greatly improve the chances of successful treatment.

Additionally, it is important to practice preventive health measures including

  • avoiding smoking or excessive sun exposure
  • wearing protective eyewear when exposed to the outdoors for long periods of time
  • protecting your eyes from potential sources of radiation

By following these health tips and practices you can greatly reduce your risk for developing eye cancer as well as other cancers.