# How do we measure temperature? Science’s ultimate thermometer

Temperature is one of the most fundamental physical characteristics of a system. Measuring temperature enables us to understand the behavior of matter, energy transfer between systems, and the efficiency of industrial processes, among other things. In this article, we will take a look at how temperature is measured, the different scales used, and the devices that are used for temperature measurement.

## What is temperature?

Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the molecules in a system. The kinetic energy of a molecule is due to its random motion. If we assume that two or more systems have the same temperature, the molecules in those systems have the same average kinetic energy, but their distribution of kinetic energies may be different. The amount of energy absorbed or released by an object when it is heated or cooled depends on the mass of the object, its specific heat capacity, and the magnitude of the temperature change.

## The different scales of temperature measurement

### Celsius scale

The Celsius scale, also known as the centigrade scale, is based on the freezing point and boiling point of water at standard pressure. The freezing point of water is defined as 0 degrees Celsius, while the boiling point is 100 degrees Celsius.

### Fahrenheit scale

The Fahrenheit scale is also used to measure temperature in some countries. It was developed by Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit, a German physicist, in 1724. The Fahrenheit scale has a smaller degree size compared to the Celsius scale. The freezing point of water is 32 degrees Fahrenheit, while the boiling point is 212 degrees Fahrenheit.

### Kelvin scale

The Kelvin scale, also known as the absolute scale, is the fundamental temperature scale used in science. It is based on the theoretical concept of absolute zero, which is the point where all thermal motion stops. The Kelvin scale is measured in kelvins (K), and its zero point is defined as absolute zero, approximately -273.15 degrees Celsius.

## The devices used for measuring temperature

### Thermocouples

A thermocouple is a device that measures temperature by detecting the voltage produced by the junction of two dissimilar metals or semiconductors. The voltage produced by the thermocouple is directly proportional to the temperature difference between the two junctions. A thermocouple is relatively inexpensive and can measure a wide range of temperatures, from -200 to +2,000 degrees Celsius.

### Resistance temperature detectors (RTDs)

RTDs are temperature sensors that measure temperature using the change in electrical resistance of certain metals, usually platinum, nickel, or copper. When an RTD is exposed to a change in temperature, its electrical resistance changes proportionally. RTDs have a high degree of precision and stability, making them suitable for scientific and industrial applications.

### Infrared thermometers

Infrared thermometers measure temperature by detecting the thermal radiation emitted by objects. The device then converts the radiation into an electrical signal, which is then displayed on a screen. Infrared thermometers are non-contact devices, and they can measure temperature at a distance, making them ideal for measuring the temperature of objects that are difficult to reach or that are in a hazardous environment.

### Thermistors

A thermistor is a temperature sensor that measures temperature by detecting the change in electrical resistance of certain metals or ceramics. The electrical resistance of a thermistor decreases with increasing temperature, and this change can be used to determine the temperature. Thermistors have a high degree of sensitivity, but they are not as accurate as other temperature sensors.

## The accuracy of temperature measurement

The accuracy of temperature measurement depends on various factors, including the type of temperature sensor used, the calibration of the device, and the environmental conditions. Each type of temperature sensor has its advantages and disadvantages in terms of accuracy and sensitivity. The accuracy of a temperature measurement device can be improved by regular calibration and maintenance.

## The applications of temperature measurement

Temperature measurement has numerous applications in science and industry. In science, temperature measurement is used to study the behavior of matter, the thermodynamics of energy transfer, and the properties of different materials. In industry, temperature measurement is used to monitor and control manufacturing processes, to control the temperature of equipment, and to ensure the quality and safety of products.

## The challenges of temperature measurement

Temperature measurement can be challenging in certain situations. For example, measuring the temperature of a moving object or a fluctuating system can be difficult. Measuring the temperature of objects in a vacuum or in a hazardous environment can also be challenging. The accuracy of temperature measurement can be affected by various factors such as the emissivity of the object, the distance between the object and the sensor, and the presence of other sources of radiation.

## Conclusion

In conclusion, measuring temperature is an essential component of our understanding of the physical world. The different scales of temperature measurement and the devices used for temperature measurement have their advantages and disadvantages. Understanding the principles of temperature measurement, choosing the appropriate device for the application, and maintaining the accuracy of the device are crucial for successful temperature measurement.

## FAQs

• Q: What are the different types of temperature sensors?
• A: The different types of temperature sensors include thermocouples, RTDs, thermistors, and infrared thermometers.
• Q: Why is temperature measurement important in industry?
• A: Temperature measurement is important in industry because it is used to monitor and control manufacturing processes, to control the temperature of equipment, and to ensure the quality and safety of products.
• Q: What is the difference between the Celsius and Fahrenheit temperature scales?
• A: The Celsius and Fahrenheit temperature scales have different freezing and boiling points. The freezing point of water is 0 degrees Celsius and 32 degrees Fahrenheit, while the boiling point is 100 degrees Celsius and 212 degrees Fahrenheit.